29 April 2016

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HSA NATURAL SCIENCE SYLLABUS


HSA NATURAL SCIENCE SYLLABUS
PART B Module-I ANIMAL DIVERSITY
1.Whittaker’s five Kingdom Classification:
Kingdom Protista-Salient features Parasitic Protozoans
e.g.Entamoeba histolytica,Morphology,Life history,Pathogenicity Trypanosoma gambiense,Prophylactic measures Plasmodium vivax

Kingdom Animalia
Levels of organization-Cellular,Tissue,Organ,Coelom,Symmetry
Phylum Non-Chordata:
Phylum Coelenterata
General characters
Classes:(1)Hydrozoa e.g.Obelia
(2)Scyphozoa e.g.Aurelia
(3)Anthozoa e.g.Sea anemone
Polymorphism in Coelenterata
Phylum Platyhelminthes:
General characters
Classes(1)Turbellaria e.g.Planaria
(2)Trematoda e.g.Fasciola
(3)Cestoda e.g.Taenia Solium
Phylum Nematoda
General characters
e.g.Ascaris,Ancylostoma,Enterobius,Wuchereia
Phylum Annelida
General characters
Classes(1)Polychaeta e.g.Arenicola
(2)Oligochaeta e.g.Nereis
(3)Hirudinea e.g.Hirudinaria
Vermiculture(brief account)
Phylum Arthopoda
General characters
Classes(1)Crustacea e.g.Penaeus
(2)Insecta e.g.Honey bee
(3)Merostomata e.g.Limulus
(4)Myriapoda e.g.Centepede
Phylum Onychophora
Peripatus.Affinities,Distribution Social organization:Honey bee(mention caste system)
Economic importance:Sericulture
Phylum Mollusca
General characters
Classes(1)Amphineura e.g.Chiton
(2)Bivalvia e.g.Perna
(3)Scaphopoda e.g.Dentalium
(4)Gastropoda e.g.Pila
(5)Cephalopoda e.g.Sepia
Economic importance:Pearl culture
Classes:(1)Asteroidea e.g.Asterias
(2)Ophiuroide e.g.Ophiothrix
(3)Echinoidea e.g.Echinus
(4)Holothuroidea e.g.Sea cucumber
(5)Crinoidea e.g.Sea lily(Antedon)
II.PHYLUM CHORDATA
General characters
Sub phyla (1)Urochordata:e.g.Ascidia
(2)Cephalochordata e.g.Amphioxus
(3)Vertebrata.General characters
Divisions(1)Agnatha.General character e.g.Petromyzon(2)Gnathostomata-General characters
Super class
(1)Pisces.General characters,Classification
Class(1)Chondrichthyes e.g.Scoliodon
Class(2)Osteichthyes e.g.Sardinella
(2)Tetrapoda Salient features/General characters
Classes(1)Amphibia:General characters
Orders(1)Urodela:e.g.Ambystoma
(2)Aneura:e.g.Hyla,Bufo
(3)Apoda:e.g.Ichthyophis
(2)Reptilia:General characters
Common examples:Calotes
Identification of venomous and non-venomous snakes
(3)Aves:General Characters
Common examples:Emu,Pavo Migration of Birds(4)
Mamalia:General characters Common examples:Rattus Dentition Mammals
Module-II
I.PHYSIOLOGY,BIOCHEMISTRY & DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
1.Physiology
-Nutrition:
Types,Balanced diet,Nutritional disorders.Vitamin deficiency diseases,life style Diseases,role of fibres,nervous & neutronal control of digestion
Circulation:Blood and its composition,blood group,blood clotting mechanisms,anticoagulants,heart beat,pacemaker and conducting system of heart,blood pressure,pulse,common cardiovascular diseases.ECG,angiogram,angioplasty.
Respiration:Gas exchange,respiratory pigments,Haemoglobin,Transport of respiratory gases.
Regulation of respiration-Respiratory disturbances.Apnoea,dyspnoea,hypoxia,hyper and hypo capnia,asphyxia,CO poisoning,asthma
Excretion:Nephron.Structure,Urine formation,role of kidney in osmoregulation,composition of urine,abnormal constituents of urine,renal disorders.nephritis,haematuria,renal calculi,acidosis and alkalosis,Dialysis.
Muscle Physiology:Types of muscles,Ultrastructure of striated muscle fibre,Muscle proteins,Muscle twitch,All or none law,Rigor mortis,Physiological and biochemical changes in muscle contraction
Nerve Physiology:Structure of neuron,types;Synapse.types,nerve impulse propagation,Synaptic transmission,Reflex action,Neurotransmitters,EEG.Nerve disorders.epilepsy,Parkinson’s diseases,Alzheimer’s
Endocrinology:Endocrine glands in man ,hormones and disorders,mechanism of hormonal activity
2.Biochemistry:Biomolecules.Carbohydrates,Proteins,lipids and nucleic acids,structure and classification with examples.
Metabolism:Carbohydrate glycogenesis,glycogenolysis,glycolysis,Kreb’s cycle Electron Transport Chain
-Lipid:Beta Oxidation.Protein.deamination,transamination,Urea formation-Enzymes:Mechanism of enzyme action,factors affecting enzyme action,Isoenzyme,Coenzyme,enzyme inhibition and activation
3.Developmental Biology
Theories:Preformation,Epigenesis,Recapitulation and Germplasm-Spermatogenesis,Oogenesis,Typical egg and Sperm
Type of eggs.
Fertilization:Agglutination,Amphimixis,Physiological and biochemical changes during and after fertilization,Parthenogenesis,Artificial Parthenogenesis,Arrhenotoky,Thelytoky,Obligatory and facultative;Significance of fertilization and Partheogenesis.
Cleavage:Types,Morula,blastula(different types),fate maps.Gastrula.Morphogenetic movements.concept of germ layers.
Cell differentiation:Unipotency,Pleuri and totipotency,Gene action.Homeotic genes,Hox genes
Development:Man.Implantation,Pregnancy,Placentation.Different types function
Teratology:Definition,Causes of infection,drug and chemicals,metabolic imbalance,ionizing radiation,malnutrition,auto immunization
Experimental Embryology:
Spemann’s construction experiment,Organizer and embryonic Induction,IVF and embryo transfer in man,cloning experiment in animals,Prenatal diagnosis.Amniocentesis,Chorionic villus sampling,ultrasound scanning,stem cells.embryonic and adult.Stem cell therapy.
MODULE-III
CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY,GENETICS,BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINFORMATICS
CELL BIOLOGY
Development and Scope,Cell theory and its Modern version.
Types of Cells:Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Ultra structure and functions of Plasma
Membrane,Plasma membrane model.Fluid mosaic,Functions,Membrane transport,Cell communication—Modifications of  Plasma membrane.
Cell organelles:
Nucleus-Structure,interphase,nuclear envelope.functions.
Nucleolus-Structure,nucleolar organizer and functions.
Mitochondria-Structure and function,Oxidative phosphorylation
Endoplasmic reticulum-Structure and function,types.
Lysosomes-Morphology,Polymorphism and functions
Ribosomes-Different types.sub units,functions.
Centrioles and basal bodies.Structure and function.Microbodies.Peroxisomes,glyoxisomes,glyoxisomes,functions.Cell division.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Gene expression:Central dogma in Molecular Biology ,One gene,One enzyme,one gene.one polypeptide hypotheses.
Genetic code-Wobble hypothesis
Contributions of Khorana,Nirenberg and associates,RNA polymerase,chaperones,protein synthesis.
Gene regulation:Operon concept.Lac and Trp operon.
Bacterial Recombination:Transformation,Conjugation and Transduction.
GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Human Genetics:Karyotyping,pedigree analysis,chromosomal anomalies in man.
A.Autosomal e.g.Down Syndrome,Edwards Syndrome)
B.Allosomal(e.g.Turners and Klinefelters syndrome)
Biochemical genetics:
Disorders Phenylketonuria,alkaptonuria,albinism,tyrosinosis
BIOTECHNOLOGY
Scope of Biotechnology,Recombinant DNA Technology,Techniques in gene cloning,restriction endonucleases,ligases,major steps in cutting and joining of DNA,Probes,linkers.
Blotting Techniques
Southern,Northern and Western,DNA finger printing
Genomic library
cDNA library,PCR,DNA sequencing
Human Genome Project
Hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies,transgenic organisms.
Practical applications
Medicine,agriculture,industry,pollution control,forensic & judiciary.
Potential hazards of Biotechnology
IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
IMMUNOLOGY:
Immunity:Definition,Types
Immune System:
Primary and Secondary
Immunogens:
Antigens-Definition,types
Antigen-antibody reactions
Immune responses:
Allergy-Classification
AIDS,Autoimmunity,Vaccines
MICROBILOGY:Survey of microbes-Viruses-Prions,Viroids,Bacteria,Protozoa.
Applied microbiology in various fields
Microbial diseases in man.
Module IV-ECOLOGY,ETHOLOGY,EVOLUTION AND ZOOGEOGRAPHY ECOLOGY
Population ecology:Properties of Population,emigration,immigration and migration,population fluctuation.
Community ecology:Definition,Species diversity.
Wildlife conservation and Management
Threatened Species Red data book,IUCN,WWF,CITES,Green Peace,Biosphere reserve,National Park,Sanctuaries,forests in India,Importance of mangroves,hotspots.
Ecosystem-Conservation and management.
ETHOLOGY
Motivation,Learning-types,socio biology,pheromones,human pheromone.
EVOLUTION
Geological time scale,fossils,fossil dating and significance of fossils
Genetic drift,genetic equilibrium,Hardy-Weinberg law,punctuated equilibrium.
Speciation-Sympatric and allopatric,adaptive radiation
Zoogeography
Animal distribution-Different types,factors affecting distribution.
Zoogeographical realms-Brief account of each realm Biogeographical classification of India-Eastern and Western Ghats.
Module V-MICROBIOLOGY
Bacteria:UItra structure,reproduction,genetic recombination,economic importances(Industrial uses,food preservation and spoilage,biopesticides,biofertilizers,sewage treatment,nitrogen fixation and symbiosis),staining techniques
Viruses:Structure and reproduction-RNA and DNA viruses,bacteriophages,TMV and HIV
MYCOLOGY AND LICHENOLOGY
Fungi:General characteristics,reproduction and life cycle,heterothallism and parasexuality
Distinguishing characters of different classes of fungi representing the following genera:
Mastigomycotina(Pythium),Zygomycotina(Rhizopus),Ascomycotina(yeast),Basidiomycotina(Agaricus)and Deuteromycotina(Cercospora)
Economic importances of fungi:industrial,medicinal,food and agriculture(Biofertilizers and Biocontrols)
Lichens:Economic and ecological importances,habit of crustose,foliose and fruticose lichens-homomerous and heteromerous
General account and economic importance,structure,reproduction and lifecycle of Usnea
PLANT PATHOLOGY
Principles of plant pathology-biotic and abiotic causes of plant diseases
Classification of plant diseases on the basis of causative organisms and symptoms:
Transmission and spread of diseases-quarantine regulations-disease control measures
Study of the following diseases-causal agent,symptoms,etiology and control measures:Tapioca mosaic disease,Citrus canker,Blast of paddy
BRYOLOGY
Structure,reproduction and life cycle of the following types:Hepaticopsida(Riccia),Anthoceratopsida(Anthoceros),Bryopsida(Fuaria)
Economical importances of bryophytes
PTERIDOLOGY
Structure,reproduction,life cycle and affinities of following types:Psilotum(Psilopsida),Selaginella(Lycopsida),Equisetum(Sphenopsida)and Marsilea(Pteropsida)Heterospory and seed habit Affinities of pteridophytes with bryophytes and gymnosperms Economic importances of pteridophytes-Biofertilizer
GYMNOSPERMS
General characters,structure(external and internal),reproduction and life cycle of following gymnosperms-Cycas,Pinus,Gnetum Origin and evolution of gymnosperms and their affinities with pteridophytes and angiosperms Economic importances of gymnosperms.
PALAEOBOTANY
Objectives of palaeobotany,geological time scale,methods of fossilization,fossil pteridophyte(Rhynia)
MODULE VI-MORPHOLOGY
Description of various types of leaves,stem,inflorescence(racemose,cymose and mixed type),fruit (simple,multiple and aggregate)placentations(axile,marginal,free-central)Seeds and seed dispersal
SYSTEMATICS
Objectives and importances of systematic Systems of classification:Artificial(Linnaeus),Natural(Benthem and Hooker),and Phylogenetic(Engler and Pranti)
Detailed study of Benthem and Hooker Classification Principles and rules of plant nomenclature,ICBN Taxonomic structure-hierarchial concept,(Type,species,genus,family)
Recent trends in taxonomy-cytotaxonomy,chemotaxonomy,numerical taxonomy,molecular taxonomy
Taxonomic information resources:herbaria,botanical gardens,BSI,taxonomic literature:floras,manuals and monographs Study the following families:Annonaceae,Malvaceae,Rutaceae,Leguminosae,Cucurbitaceae.
Rubiaceae,Asteraceae,Apocynaceae,Solanaceae,Acanthaceae,Lamiaceae,Euphorbiaceae,Liliaceae,Orchidaceae,Poaceae
ECONOMIC BOTANY
Botanical name,family,morphology of useful part of the following:
Cereals:Wheat,ragi
Pulses:Black gram,Bengal gram
Sugar:Sugar cane
Spices:Cardamom,black pepper,nutmeg
Tubers:Tapioca
Fibre:Coir,cotton,jute
Latex:Rubber
Beverages:Coffee
Medicinal :Adhatoda,Catheranthus,Rauvolfia,Phyllanthus,Neem
ANATOMY
Typical structure of a plant cell
Non-living inclusions of plant cells.Cystolith,raphides,aleuron grains,starch grains
Tissues:Meristematic,permanent and complex tissues
Roots and shoot apex organization
Primary and secondary structure of root,stem(Monocot and dicot)
Anatomy of monocot and dicot leaf
Stomata-structure-dicot and monocot
Nodal anatomy
Structure of secondary wood-phellem,phellogen and phelloderm,lenticels and annual rings
Anomalous secondary growth-Boerhaavia,Bignonia and Dracaena
EMBRYOLOGY
Microsporogenesis:Development of microsporangia,and male gametophyte
Megasporogenesis:Development of megasporangia and female gametophyte
Types of ovules:orthotropous,anatropous,campilotropous
Fertilization and endosperm formation
Endosperm formation:nuclear,cellular and helobial
Embryo-dicot and monocot  embryo,polyembryony,apomixes,apospory and parthenocarpy
CROP IMPROVEMENT
Objectives of plant breeding
Breeding techniques and achievements
Introduction and acclimatization
Selection-pure line selection,mass selection and clonal selection
Hybridization
Heterosis and inbreeding depression
Polyploidy breeding
Mutation breeding
Plant Propagation methods:Cutting,Budding,Grafting and Layering
MODULE VII-PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Water in relation to plants:Water potential,diffusion,osmosis,DPD,turgor pressure,osmotic pressure,exomosis,endomosis,plasmolysis
Transpiration:Mechanism of guard cell movement, role of K ions,anti-transpirants
Mechanisms of water absorption,passive and active Translocation of water:transpiration pull
Water stress and physiological consequences
Mineral nutrition-essential and non-essential elements and their role in growth and development Mechanism of mineral absorption-active,passive and fecilitated
Photosynthesis:Chloroplast as photosynthetic apparatus,light phase,cyclic and non-cyclic
Photphosphorylation,dark reaction,C3,C4 and CAM path ways,photorespiration.
Translocation of photosynthates:Pholem transport,phloem loading and un-loading
Growth and Development:Concept of hormone and growth regulators on plant,hormones and their action:auxins,GA,cytokinines,ABA,ethylene Photoperiodism,and vernalization
Photomorphogenesis,phototropism,gavitropism,Nyctinastic,Seismonastic movement
METABOLISM AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Biological nitrogen fixation,symbiotic nitrogen fixation,biochemistry of nitrogen fixation and genetics of nitrogen fixation
Biosynthesis of amino acids,reductive amination and transammination.GS/GOGAT pathways
Oxidation of fatty acids,alpha and beta oxidation of fatty acids,cellular respiration of proteins.
CELL BIOLOGY
Chromosomes,morphology,telomere,satellite,primary and secondary constrictions,nuclear organizer,chromosome banding,heterochromatic and euchromatic,nucleosomes,polytene and lampbrush chromosomes,chromosomal aberrations-deletions,duplication,inversion and translocation Numerical aberrations:anueploidy and euploidy Cell cycle:mitosis and meiosis,significances of meiosis
GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Mendel’s experiments,symbols,terminology,Mendalian laws,Monohybrid cross,Dihybrid cross,backcross,Test cross,Modified Mendelain ratios inter actions of genes,epistasis,Complementary genes,Inhibitary genes,quantitative inheritance
Mulitiple alleles-Self sterility in nicotiana
Linkage and crossing over-2 point and 3 point crosses,Linkage maps,interference and coincidence
Sex determination and Sex linked inheritance
XX-XY type XX-XD type,Sex determination plants,criss cross inheritance,Sex limited and sex influenced traits
Extra nuclear inheritance plastid inheritance in mirabilis,coiling of shells in snails
Mutation-Types Mutagens,Physical and Chemical,Molecular basis of Mutations,transitions,
Transversion,frameshift
Nucleic acids-DNA,RNA-Evidence of DNA as genetic material DNA structure Watson and Cricks model,types of DNA,A,B,Z,RNA structure types(mRNA,tRNA,rRNA)
DNA replication,enzymology of DNA replication,semi conservative mode,Meselon and Stahis experiments,molecular mechanism of replication in Prokaryote and Eykaryote
Post transcriptional modifications,translation,teminism
EVOLUTION
Molecules and origin of lives ,evolution of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells,Mitochondrial and endosymbiotic theory,Chloroplast and endosymbiotic theory.Theories on origin and evolution of species,Lamarkism,Darwinism,Weismann,Devries,Neo Darwinism
MODULE VIII:ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
ECOSYSTEM
Introduction-Basic principles and concepts of ecology and environment.Interdisciplinary approach.Scope and relevance to society and human environment.Need for public awareness-Ecosystem-Definition,ecosystems-concept of an ecosystem.Structure and function of an ecosystem.A)Abiotic factors:Climate shapes the character of ecosystem-Edaphic factors-B)Biotic factors-food chain Food web and ecological pyramids.Biogeochemical cycle:Gaseous-Carbon,Oxygen & Nitrogen.
Hydrological-Water-Ecological succession-definition,types,causes of succession,process of succession.Hydrosere and Lithosere.Ecological groups of plants:Hydrophytes,Xerophytes.Halophytes,Epiphytes and Parasites(brief account only)
Natural resources
Renewable and non-renewable resources.Natural resources and associated problem.Forest resources-deforestation,aforestation,conservation-protection forestry-chipko movement-production-commercial forestry-social forestry,Agroforestry-timber extraction,mining,dams and their effects on forest,and tribal people-mineral resources-Environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources-Water resources-use and overuse of surface water and ground water floods,droughts-Food resources.World food problems-Energy resources.
Social issues and the environment
Environmental pollution a)Definition,causes effects and control measures.Types of pollution Soil,Air,Water,Solid wastes-management-radioactive,noise & thermal pollution.Role of an individual in prevention of pollution.Pollution case studies.Role of pollution control board-Urban problems related to energy.Water conservation-Rain water harvesting and water shed management.Resettlement and rehabilitation of people-its problems and concerns.Environmental ethics:issues and possible solutions-Climate change and Global warming,acid rain,ozone layer depletion,nuclear accidents-Wasteland reclamation,Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation-Public awareness-Human population and environment-Population growth,variation among nations.Population explosion-Family welfare program.Environment and human health:Human rights-The Ecological crisis-industrialization-the human transformation of the earth-human activity  is placing the biosphere under increased increasing stress growth of the world economy-urbanization-the vulnerable planet.World Earth summits and protocols-Rio,Kyoto.Johannesberg.The failure of ecological reforms.
Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity-Concepts of biodiversity-Types of bio-diversity-biodiversity in India.India as mega diversity nation-hotsposts of biodiversity,threats to biodiversity-Conservation of biodiversity-The conservation strategies are multidimensional-National parks,wildlife sanctuaries.
TISSUE CULTURE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Plant Tissue culture
Plant Tissue Culture-History,Principle Totiotency,differentiation,dedifferentiation,redifferentiation.Tissue culture laboratory,Media-MS medium composition,Preparation,Sterilization techniques,Ex-plant selection,sterilization and Inoculation.Types of culture-Meristem culture,Organ culture;Sterilization and inoculation
Recombinant DNA and Molecular cloning
Cloning vectors .Plasmids-Bacteriophages PBR322,PUC,phage.Artificial chromosome vectors-BAC,YAC,Shuttle vectors.Consruction of recombinant DNA methods.Gene transfer technique-Vector method.Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer-Ti and Ri Plasmids;Direct DNA uptake-Electroporation-shot gun method-microinjection,lipofection.Herbicide Resistance-drought resistance-enrichment of storage protein,improvement of the nutritional quality  of seeds.Biotechnology and Bio ethics-Gene therapy GMOs food safety,environmental and Biosafety issues,Concerns,Role of multi national companies in biotechnology-Agribusiness-Golden Rice,Terminator Genes.Economical and Legal issue.BioEthics-Patenting
BIOINFORMATICS
Bioinformatics-Introduction,scope and fields of application,Major databases in Bioinformatics:Nucleotide sequence databases-EMBL,DDBJ,GenBank;Protein sequence databases swiss Prot,PIR,Database Search Engines-Entrez at NCBI of USA,SRS at EBI of England.Sequence Similarity Search:Pair wise sequence alignment-BLAST,FASTA;Multiple sequence alignment-CLUSTALW,CLUSTAL X
Homology modeling of protein,structure prediction-Protein Data Bank.Similarity search.
Microarrays,Proteomics,Genomics and Application of bioinformatics.
Microtechnique-Principles of Microscopy,micrometry,Killing and fixing,Dehydration,Embedding,Staining,Clearing,Mounting media,wholemount,maceration.

Biostatistics-Measures of Central tendency-Arithmetic Mean,Median,Mode;Measures of Dispersion-Range,Standard Deviation,Standard Error,Correlation and Regression,Analysis of variance ANOVA;Application of Biostatistics.Design of Experiment-Data collection,representation and interpretation,observation direct and indirect observations,controlled and uncontrolled observations,Human and machine observations.
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