15 June 2013

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UGC-NET EXAM READING COMPREHENSION

READING COMPREHENSION
Read the following passages and answer questions:1 to 15.

PASSAGE 1
The functional principle is that Article 14 forbids class legislation,but permits reasonable classification for the purpose of legislation which classification must satisfy the twin tests of classification being founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or things that are grouped together from those that  are left out of the group and that  differentia must have a rational nexus to the object sought to be achieved by the statute in question.The thrust of Article 14 is that the citizen is entitled to equality before law and equal protection of laws.In the very nature of things the society being composed of
unequals.A welfare state will have to strive by both executive and legislative action to help the less fortunate in society to ameliorate their condition so that the social and economic inequality in the society may be bridged.This would necessitate a legislative application to a  group of citizens otherwise unequal and ameleration of whose lot is the object of state affirmative action.In the absence of the doctrine of classification such legislation is likely to flounder on the bed rock of equality enshrined in Article 14.The court realistically appraising the social and economic inequality and keeping in view the guidelines on which state action must move as constitutionally laid down in partIV of the constitution evolved the doctrine of classification.The  doctrine was evolve to sustain a legislation or state action designed to help weaker sections of the society or some such segments of the society in need  of succor.Legislative and Executive action may accordingly be sustained if it satisfies the twin tests of reasonable classification and the rational principle correlated to the object sought to be achieved.


 The concept of equality before law does not involve the idea of absolute equality among human beings which is a physical impossibility.All that Article 14 guarantees is a similarity of treatment contra-distinguished from identical treatment.Equality before law means that  among equals the law should be equal  and should be equality administrated and that the like should be treated alike.Equality before law does not mean that things which are different shall be as though they are the same.It of course means denial of any special privilege by reason of birth,creed or the like.The legislation as well as the executive government,while dealing with the diverse problems arising out of an infinite variety of human relations must of necessity have the power of making special laws to attain any particular onbject and to achieve that object it must have the power of selection or classification of persons and things upon which such laws are to operate.

1.Right to equality ,one of the fundamental rights,is enunciated in the constitution under partIII,Articles.
A.12
B.13
C.14
D.15
Ans:C

2.The main thrust of right to equality is that it permits:
A.Class legislation
B.Equality before law and equal protection under the law
C.Absolute equality
D.Special privilege by reason of birth
Ans:B

3.The social and economic  inequality in the society can be bridged by:
A.Executive and legislative action
B.Universal sufferage
C.Identical treatment
D.none of the above
Ans:A

4.The doctrine of classification is evolved to:
A.Help weaker sections of the society
B.Provide absolute equality
C.Provide identical treatment
D.None of the above
Ans:C

5.While dealing with diverse problems arising out of an infinite variety  of human relations,the Government:
A.Must have the power of making special laws.
B.Must not have any power to make special laws
C.Must have power to withdraw equal rights
D.None of the above
Ans:A


PASSAGE2

                          All Political systems need to mediate the relationship between private wealth and public power.Those that  fail risk a dysfunctional government captured by wealthy interest.Corruption is one one symptom of such failure with private willingness to pay trumping public goals-private individuals and business  firms pay to get routine services and to get to the head of the bureaucratic queue.They pay to limit their taxes,avoid costly regulations obtain contracts and inflated prices and get concessions and privilated firms at low prices-If corruption is endemic,public officials,both bureaucrats and elected officials may redesign programmes and purpose public projects with few public benefits and many opportunities for private profits.Of course,corruption in the sense of bribes,pay offs and kickbacks is only one type of government failure.Efforts to promote’good governance’must be broader than anti-corruption campaign.Governements may be honest but insufficient because no one has an incentive to work productively a narrow elites may capture the state and exert excess influence on policy.Bribery may induce the lazy to work hard and permit those not in the inner circle of cronics to obtain benefits.However,even in such cases,corruption cannot be confined into’functional’areas.It will be a temptation whatever private benefits are positive.It may be a reasonable response response toa harsh reality but overtime,it can facilitate a spiral into an even worse situation.

6.The government which fail to focus on the relationship between private wealth and public power are likely to become
A.Functional
B.Dysfunctional
C.Normal Functioning
D.Good Governance
Ans:B

7.One Important symptom of a bad governance is
A.Corruption
B.High taxes
C.Complicated rules and regulations
D.High prices
Ans:A

8.When corruption is rampant,public  officials always aim at many opportunities for
A.Public benefits
B.Public profit
C.Private profit
D.Corporate gains
Ans:C

9.Productivity linked incentives to public /private officials is one of the indicatives for
A.Efficient government
B.Bad governance
C.Inefficient government
D.Corruption
Ans:A

10.The spiraling corruption can only be curtailed by promoting
A.Private profit
B.Anti-corruption campaign
C.Good governance
D.Pay offs and kick backs


Ans:C


PASSAGE3

                                              Radically changing monsoon patterns,reduction  in the winter rice harvest and a quantum increasing respiratory diseases all part of the environmental dooms day scenario which is reportedly playing out in South Asia.According to United National Environment Programme report a deadly three kilometer deep blanket of pollution comprising a fearsome,cocktail of ashes,acids,aerasoles and other particles has enveloped in this region.For India,already struggling to cope with a drought,the implications of this are devastating and further crop failure will amount to a life and death question for many Indians.The increase in premature deaths will have adverse social and economic consequences and a rise in  morbidities will place an umbearable burden on our crumbling health system.And there is no one to blame but ourselves both officials and corporate India has always been allergic  to any mention of clean technology.Most mechanical two wheelers roll of the assembly line without proper pollution control system.Little effort is made for R and D on simple technologies which would make a vital difference to people’s life and environment.

                                           However,while there is no denying that South Asia must clean up its act,skeptics might question the timing of the haze report.The Kytoo meet on climate change is just over and the stage was set for the unusual battle between the developing world and the West,particularly the United States of America.The US President has adamantly refused to sign any protocol,Which would mean a change in American consumption level.UN environment report will likely find a place in the US arsenal as it plans an accusing finger towards controls like India and China.Yet the USA can hardly deny  its own dubious role in the matter of erasing  trading quotas.
                                          Richer countries can simply buy up excess credits from poorer countries and continue to pollute.Rather than try to get the better of developing countries who undoubtedly have taken up environmental short cuts in their  bid to catch up with the West,the USA should take a look at the environmental profligacy,which is going on with in.From opening up virgin territories for oil exploration to relaxing the standards of drinking water the American President’s policies are not exactly  beneficial,not even to America’s interests.We realize that we are all in this together and that pollution anywhere should be a global concern otherwise there will only be more tunnels at the end of the tunnel.

11.Both official and corporate India is allergic to:
A.Failure of monsoon
B.Poverty and inequality
C.Show down in industrial production
D.Mention on clean technology
Ans:D

12.If the rate of premature death increase it will:
A.Exert added burden on the crumbling economy
B.Have advertise social and economic consequences
C.Make positive effect on our effort to control population
D.Have less job aspirants in the society
Ans:B

13.According to the passage,the two –wheeler industry is not adequately concerned about:
A.Passenger safely on the roads
B.Life cover insurance of the vehicle owner
C.Pollution control system in the vehicle
D.Pricing cost of the two-wheelers
Ans:C

14.What would be the  reason behind timing of the haze report just before the Kyto meet?
A.United  Nations is working  hand in glove with the USA
B.Organization of the Kyoto meet to teach a lesson to the USA
C.Drawing attention of the WORLD towards devastating effects of environmental degradation.
D.USA wanted to use it as a handle against the Developing countries in the meet.
Ans:C

15.Which of the following is the indication of environmental degradation in South Asia?
A.Social and economic inequality
B.Crumbling health-care system
C.Inadequate pollution control system
D.Radically changing monsoon pattern
Ans:D


                   
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