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20 November 2015

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Module 1
Silvicultural characteristics of stands-growth of stands-even-aged and uneven-aged.Growth of trees in general –gross and net growth,height growth of trees-site quality-competition-seasonal weather conditions,silvicultural control of height growth.Growth of trees in age,crown class.Growth of trees in volume and value-advantages and disadvantages of rapid growth.Revised classification of forest types  of India and their distribution.Forest types of Kerala Study of Important nursery pests and diseases and their control measures.Nursery practices for some important  tree species.Plantations-definition and scope.Plantation planning-National and regional planning-project appraisal and project implementation.-Plantation silviculture-Choice of species-concept of fast growth –exotics vs.indigenous-traditional vs.Intensive forest management-Plantation establishment-essentials-ground preparation Planting-planting stock-planting pattern spacing-general planting rules-protection of newly planted seedling-Plantation maintenance-death of seedling-weed control-pruning Nutrition in plantations-nutrient deficiencies-symptoms of deficiency-use of fertilizers dynamics of stand growth-Thinning-kinds and methods of thinning.Plantation records plantation journal-sustainability of plantations-fast growing plantations-myths and reality Industrial plantation-paper and pulp wood-Match wood plantation-plywood plantation MFP plantation-tannin,resin and turpentine plantations-Energy plantation-high density short rotation plantations-pterocrops energy from biomass.Strip plantation-road side plantation-canal plantation-railway line plantation-Clonal plantations-development and management of clonal plantation.Development of plantations of economically important species like teak and eucalyptus Measurement of abiotic factors-light,temperature,and precipitation.Vegetation sampling-quadrat method.Phytosociological analysis.Vegetation sampling-quadrat method.Phytosociological analysis.Vegetation sampling-linet ransect method Global warming-causes-impact of land use change.Kyoto mechanisms to mitigate global warming-LULUCF Methods of seed collection.Fruit and seed handling-maintaining viability and identity special precautions for recalcitrant seeds.Seed processing operations prior to extraction pre-cleaning,methods of extraction-operations after extraction-cleaning,grading and control of moisture level-factors affecting drying of orthodox seeds.Seed storage  definition-purpose,recalcitrant seeds-Harrington’s rule of thumb,seed maturity-parental and annual effects.Storage  condition and ageing of seeds.Storage methods.Storage containers.Economic factors of plantation development-finance-labour infrastructure,economic marketing social and cultural effects.Plantations as potential carbon sinks-C sequestration;AB-CDM concepts.

Module 2
Volume tables-preparation of volume tables-graphical method regression method Determination of growth of the trees-Increment-CAI & MAI-Increment percent-increment borer-stump analysis-Stem analysis.Tree  stem form-Mtezgr’s theory-form factor types of form factor-form height for quotient-form class.Measurement of tree crops-objects-crop diameter-crop height-crop age-crop volume Application of modem techniques in forest management:GIS,Remote Sensing etc.History of forest legislation in India.Indian Forest Act,1927 Kerala Forest Act,1961,Kerala Private Forests(Vesting and Assignment Act),1971.Kerala preservation of trees Act,1986;Prevention of Cruetly to Animals Act,1960.Forest(Conservation)Act,1980 and rules 1981,Environment(Protection)Act,1986 and amendments.Constitutional Provision for Safeguarding the Environment,Indian Penal Code,1860-Sections Relevant to Natural Resource Management,The code of Criminal Procedure,1974-Sections Relevant to Natural Resource Management.Environmental Impact Assessment Notification,1994 and amendments.The national Environment Tribunal Act,1995.International treaties relevant to conservation of Natural Resources.The Biological Diversity Bill,2000.National Wildlife Action plan ,2002 The macroscopic features of wood,sapwood,heartwood,pith,early wood,late wood,growth rings,wood rays,etc. Sapwood versus heart wood,anatomical differences.Transformation of sapwood to heartwood;factors affecting.Three dimensional features of wood;transverse,tangential and radial surfaces.Microscopic features of wood.Prosenchymatous elements,tracheids,vessels,fibers.Parenchymatous elements,parenchyma and rays,resin canals,gum canals,latex canals,infitIrants in wood.Wood seasoning;merits,principles and types;air seasoning,kiln seasoning and chemical seasoning.Refractory classes of timbers,Kiln schedules.Seasoning defects and their control.Wood preservatives(Water soluble,oil based,etc).General idea about fire retardants and their usage.Non pressure  methods;steeping,dipping,soaking open tank process,Boucherie process.Pressure methods;full cell process,empty cell process(Lowry and Rueping)Wood Machining.Sawing;techniques,kinds of saws;cross cut,edging,cudless,hand circular and bow saws.Uses of wood;Plywood,laminated wood,core board,sandwich board,fibre board,particle board;manufacturing process,uses and properties.Adhesive used in manufacture of composite wood.Improved wood;compressed wood,impregnated wood etc;manufacturing process,uses and properties Biodiversity-diversity and niche tstructure-human and species diversity-biodiversity hotspots.Endemism-rartiy and extinction of species-causes of extinction.Biodiversity conservation-population variability-genetic drift-diversifying selection pressure.In situ conservation.National parks-sanctuaries.Biosphere concept.Biosphere reserves-reserve and protected forests.Ex situ conservation-efforts in India and worldwide.Conservation-threatened birds of India with special reference to Western Ghats region-avian extinctions.Wildlife(Protection)Act,1972.IUCN revised red list categories-Extinct,Extinct in the wild,Vulnerable,Near  Threatened and Least concerned.
Module I
Important plantation crops-Coconut,Arecanut,Oil Palm,Rubber,Cashew,Tea,Coffee,Cocoa,Black pepper.Cardamom,and other minor plantation crops of Kerala-Commercial importance,Origin,Distribution,area & production,botany and varieties.Propagation techniques,nursery management,climate and soil,site selection,layout and planting Irrigation,manuring schedule,fertigation moisture conservation methods,weed management,Plant protection Important pest and diseases,integrated pest and disease management,organic pesticides,Bio control agents.Harvesting-Maturtiy indices,Yield and yield components,Tapping systems in rubber,cost benefit analysis,post harvest management-product diversification,value addition,grading,packaging and storage.Role of commodity boards in development of plantation crops.Farm planning and budgeting,Farm inventory,methods of valuation of farm assets-depreciation,Agriculture price policy ,Globalization and liberalization,Measures to improve marketing efficiency and tools for risk management,Marketing channels,Marketing Management,balance sheet,Agro based industries,Public private partnership,Crop insurance schemes.
Module 2
Crop improvement methods in major plantation crops-floral biology,Hybridization techniques,hybrid varieties.Clonal selection and mother tree selection.Tissue culture techniques,IPR issues.Geographical Indicators,Plant Varieties and Farmers Right Act(2001),Seed Bill(2004).Seed Physiology,seed viability and vigour,seed germination seed dormancy,causes and measures to break dormancy.Plant water relation-Absorption and ascent of sap,transpiration,antitranspirants,water use efficiency,Biotic and abiotic stress factors and their management.Role of nutrients-deficiency and toxicity symptoms,foliar nutrition,hydroponics,Physiological disorders in plantation crops.Plant pigments-Radiation use efficiency,source-sink relation.Plant Growth Regulators-Mode of action,Commercial application,Photoperiodism and flowering,Senescence and Abscission.
Module I
Principles of IC engines-two stroke,four stroke,diesel,petrol-engine components,lubrication,cooling,ignition,electrical,Functions & use of power tillers & Tractors,capacities,manufactures,cost,operation & Maintenance of IC engines-Essential farm implements used for homestead farming like,land preparation,leveling,bund formation,furrow forming,disc plow,rotovator,mini tiller,cultivator.Fodder harvesting machines,brush cutters,power weeders capacity,cost-machines used for harvesting coconut-areacanut,oil palm,its capacity-basic principles-primary processing of coconut,arecanut,oil palm like drying value addition.
Module 2
Principles of mass,volume,velocity,Basic principles of surveying & leveling,various essential instruments used for surveying & levelling.Basic principles of irrigation & drainage,sprinkler,drip,furrow,basin-soil plant water relationship percolation,infiltration,permeability,evaporation,salinity.Various Instruments used for measuring these.Open well,bore well,tube well,artesian well.Ground water recharge,check dams,water harvesting techniques,Water lifting devices for upland cultivation.Suction head,delivery head,operation & maintenance of centrifugal pumps,submersible pumps,axial flow pumps.
Module 1
Various sources of natural rubber,history and development of Hevea Brasiliensis as the commercial source of natural rubber,present status and future prospects  of rubber plantation industry in the world with particular emphasis on Indian context.Latex-physical nature and chemical composition.Pre-Coagulation and its prevention.Theories of coacervation,Short term and long term preservation.Various marketable forms of natural rubber.Processing of latex into pre-served field latex and preserved latex concentrates,different methods used for concentration.Specification for concentrated latex and its grading,packing and transportation.Skim latex,production  of skim rubber,its properties and uses.Processing of field latex into ribbed smoked sheets  and their grading.Manufacture of various types of crepe rubber and their grading
Module 2
Processing of the crop into technically specified block forms of rubber,different methods used block rubber production and their specifications.Processing of the crop into special types of rubbers and master batches.Management of waste from rubber plantations:Effluents-characteristics,treatment methods and utilization of liquid waste.Solid waste-utilization.By-products  from rubber plantations:Rubber wood,rubber seed and honey.Plantation management:Records to be maintained in rubber plantations.Various costs and revenues from rubber plantations.Channels of  natural  rubber marketing,government policy,role of rubber board.Labour requirement in rubber plantations,labour disputes,disciplinary  actions,labour shortage,training and motivation.
Salient features of Indian Constitution Salient  features of the Constitution-Preamble-Its significance and its place in the interpretation of the constitution .Fundamental Rights-Directive   Principles  of State Policy-Relation between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles-Fundamental Duties.Executive –Legislature-Judiciary-Both at Union and State Level.Other Constitutional Authorities.Centre-state Relations-Legislative-Administrative and Financial.Services under the  Union and the States.Emergency Provisions.Amendment Provisions of the Constitution.
Social Welfare Legislations and Programes
Social Service Legislations like Right to Information Act,Prevention of a trocities against Women & Children,Food Security Act,Environmental Acts etc.and Social Welfare Programmes like Employment Guarantee Programme,Organ and Blood Donation etc.
Towards  A New Society
Introduction to English education-various missionary organizations and their functioning-founding of educational institutions,factories,printing press etc.
Efforts To Reform The Society
A.Socio-Religious reform Movements
SNDP Yogam,Nair Service Society,Yogakshema Sabha,Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham,Vaala Samudaya Parishkarani Sabha,Samathwa Samajam,Islam Dharma Paripalana Sangham,Prathyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha,Sahodara Prasthanam etc.
B.Struggles and Social Revolts
Upper cloth revolts.Channar agitation,Vaikom Sathyagraha,Guruvayoor Sathyagraha,Paliyam Sathyagraha.Kuttamkulam Sathyagraha,Temple Entry proclamation,Temple Entry Act,Malayalee Memorial,Ezhava Memorial etc.Malabar riots,Civil Disobedience Movement,Absention Movement etc.
Role of Press In Renaissance
Malayalee,Swadeshabhimani,Vivekodayam,Mitavadi,Swaraj,Malayala Manorama,Bhashaposhini,Mathrubhumi,Kerala Kaumudi,Samadarsi,Kesari,Al-Ameen,Prabhatham,Yukthivadi etc.
Awakening Through Literature
Novel,Drama,Poetry,Purogamana Sahithya Prasthanam,Nataka Prasthanam,Library movement etc.
Women and Social Change
Parvathi Nenmenimangalam,Arya Pallam,A V Kuttimalu Amma,Lalitha  Prabhu,Akkamma Cheriyan,Anna Chandi,Lalithambika Antharjanam and others
Leaders of Renaissance
Thycaud Ayya Vaikundar,Sree Narayana Guru,Ayyan Kali,Chattampi,Swamikal,Brahmananda Sivayogi, Vagbhadananda,Poikayil Yohannan(Kumara Guru)Dr Palpu,Palakkunnath Abraham Malpan,Mampuram Thangal,Sahodaran Ayyappan,Pandit K P Karuppan,Pampadi John Joseph,Mannathu Padmanabhan,V T  Bhattathirippad,Vakkom Abdul Khadar Maulavi,Makthi Thangal,Blessed Elias Kuriakose Chavara,Barrister G P Pillai,TK Madhavan,Moorkoth Kumaran,C.Krishnan,K P Kesava Menon,Dr.Ayyathan Gopalan,C V Kunjuraman,Kuroor Neelakantan Namboothiripad,Velukkutty Arayan,K P Vellon,P K Chathan Master,K Kelappan,P.Krishna Pillai,A K Gopalan,T R Krishnaswami Iyer,C Kesavan.Swami Ananda Theerthan,M C Joseph,Kuttippuzha Krishnapillai and others
Literary Figures
Kodungallur Kunhikkuttan Thampuran,Kerala Varma Valiyakoyi Thampuran,Kandathil Varghese Mappila.Kumaran Asan,Vallathol Narayana Menon,Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer,G Sankara Kurup,Changampuzha Krishna Pillai,Chandu Menon,Vaikom Muhammad Basheer.Kesav Dev,Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai,Ponkunnam Varky,S K Pottakad and others
General Knowledge and Current Affairs
Note:It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above,questions from other topics prescribed  for the educational qualification of the post may also apperar in the question paper.There is no undertaking that all the topics above may be covered in the question paper
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